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Vaiano is the most important town of the Bisenzio Valley (a territory that stretches along the course of the Bisenzio river and also includes the municipalities of Cantagallo and Vernio). Its origins date back to Roman times and the first settlement developed before the year 1000 in the area where stands the Abbey.

The major historical-artistic building is the Abbey of San Salvatore which rises in the heart of the town and is the house of memory of Agnolo Firenzuola, while Il Mulinaccio Villa is dedicated to the figure of Filippo Sassetti, and today is used for public events and ceremonies. Also noteworthy is the Historical-Ethnographic Documentation Center of the Bisenzio Valley, located within the municipal buildings, a rich historical photographic archive and oral sources.

With the possibility of using the water of the river for hydraulic power and as aid to manufacturing, fulling mills, paper mills and foundries were built here since the Middle Ages and from the second half of the nineteenth century the town became a textile centre of considerable importance. In 1949 Vaiano became an independent municipality.

The total area of ​​the municipal area is 34.24 km² and includes the hamlets of Fabio, Faltugnano, Gamberame, Grisciavola, La Briglia, La Cartaia, La Foresta, La Tignamica, Popigliano, Schignano and Sofignano.