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Vaiano is the most important centre in the Bisenzio valley. Of Roman origin, the first good-sized town had grown up already before the year One Thousand around the Abbey. With the possibility of using the water of the river for hydraulic power and as aid to manufacturing, fulling mills, paper mills and foundries were built here starting in the Middle Ages; from the second half of the 19th century the town became a textile centre of notable importance. In 1949 Vaiano became an autonomous Commune. The overall surface area of the communal territory is 34.24 km2. The inhabitants number 9,775 (2012). The Commune includes the localities of Fabio, Faltugnano, Gamberame, Grisciavola, La Briglia, La Cartaia, La Foresta, La Tignamica, Popigliano, Schignano and Sofignano. The building of greatest historical-artistic interest is the Abbey of San Salvatore, situated at the heart of the town. Of particular interest is the Villa Vai al Mulinaccio. Located in Vaiano, in the buildings of the Commune, is the Val Bisenzio Centre of Historic-Ethnographic Documentation with its rich archives of historic photographs and oral sources.